Please Note: The information in this document has just been translated over from the printed version (14-Aug-98) and is being reviewed. There are errors! This notice will go away once all the obvious errors are corrected. From there, this document will be upgraded over time.
I've been involved with Model "T" computing since its beginning in 1983 (with computing experience dating back to the fall of 1967. Over the years I've had the golden opportunity to play with a wide verity of computers and programs. I must say that transferring files across multiple platforms is a knowledge and skill of great importance and practical use to the modern computer user.
Within these pages you will find a wide variety of terms, methods, and programs you may use for transferring files between a Model 100, 102, 200, WP-2 or NEC PC8201A (AKA Model "T") and any other computer. In fact, you may apply what you learn here to any computer.
What is a null-modem cable or adapter? The term "null-modem" is a term like "truck." There are several types of trucks ... there are several types of null-modem cables and adapters. Furthermore, the term "null-modem" means that a modem (AKA modulator/demodulator) is not required for transmission between two computers sitting side by side, i.e., the serial, demodulated signal does not need to be modulated. A modem is used to modulate (out) and demodulate (in) a serial signal over local phone lines. If you are not going to use a phone line (you are going to connect two computers together directly via their serial ports) then you do not need to modulate the electrical signal via a modem.
The basic null modem cable or adapter switches the send and receive lines of the serial ports between two computers. Like when you are talking on the telephone, your mouth is connected to your listeners ear; and vise versa. Thus, via a null modem cable or adapter, the send line of each computer is connected to the receive line of the other computer. But, unlike a telephone call between two people, computers need strict, timing controls, i.e., the sending computer should not start sending until the receiving computer is ready ... and other technical considerations. You will find the most common null-modem cable configuration within this document.
Want to build your own full-null, null-modem cable? Okay, here's the pinouts. If you don't want to build your own cable, perhaps you will purchase one from us. $17.50 (25M-25F or 25M-9F ... please indicate configuration when ordering ... the second number is the DOS computer side of the cable for COM1 or COM2). Cables are always in stock at Club 100.
Between 2, Model "T"s
Transferring .DO and .BA files via a null-modem cable or adapter, between 2, Model 100 type laptop's sitting side by side is easy. To start, you will need a null-modem cable or adapter connected between the two computers via their RS232C ports.
Model 100 A: The sending computer Model 100 B: The receiving computer
Transfer a .DO file from A to B:
Don't blink ... 98N1E is a 19200 baud transfer ... very fast and very safe between two .DO files within TEXT.
Transfer a .BA file from A to B:
This will take a bit longer than within TEXT due to the needs of the BASIC interpreter. 58N1E is a 1200 baud transfer ... very fast and safe between two .BA files.
After the OK returns on B, type SAVE"filename <enter>
Between Model "T" And Desktop
Transferring .DO files from a Model 100/102 to any other computer is very easy. Let me present a generic concept. The .DO file is an ASCII file created with the Model 100/102 TEXT program.
Connect your Model 100/102 to your other computer via a null-modem cable or adapter between the serial port ... assuming that you other computer has an IEEE RS232C port. The port's shape is not important as long as it's RS232C, or just RS232. The actually connectors can be mated with adapters found at any good computer store. The cable used may be a serial cable and a null-modem adapter, or null-modem cable, or a Club 100 CompLink cable.
Go into TELCOM on your Model 100/102 and go into whatever communications program you have for the other computer. Your communications program is normally used to address a modem.
Set the baud rate and stats the same for each computer. Example: To set the baud rate and stats to 1200 baud on your Model 100/102, while in TELCOM, tap the STAT key, type in 58N1E and hit <enter>. This means 1200 baud, 8 bit word, no parity, one stop bit, enable xon/xoff flow control. I can't tell you how to set the baud, etc. on your other computer but will assume you can figure that end out.
Go into Term mode on both computers. This is accomplished by tapping your <f4> function key on your Model 100/102.
At this point, you should be able to key something on one computer and see it on the screen of the other computer. I won't go into why at this point, except to say that you are now talking between your two computers.
Transfer a file from a Model 100/102 to another computer
The file will transfer at 1200 baud from your Model 100/102 to your other computer. Actually, the file will move at 600 baud due to the speed of your Model 100/102's LCD but that's another story for another day.
If you want to delete the file from your Model 100/102, simply go into BASIC, key in KILL"filename.DO" and hit <enter>. The term "filename" stands for the actual name of the .DO file in your Model 100/102.
That's the generic way to transfer .DO files from a Model 100/102 to any other computer. This method is the same for Model 200 and only different in the STAT setting.
There are easier and slicker ways to transfer files to Mac and DOS computers using Lapdos II or Desk-Link.
So you want to transfer program files (.BA and .CO), as well as ASCII (.DO) files. The method is the same as used to transfer a .DO file with the difference being the "file transfer protocol." In review: A stock Model "T" (100, 102, 200) can only transfer in ASCII (.DO) while in TELCOM. Note: There "is" a trick to transferring .BA files in and out of BASIC. I will cover that at the end of this topic.
To transfer .BA and .CO files to and from your Model "T" and any other computer, you will need a different TELCOM program in your Model "T" ... one with XMODEM file transfer protocol capability. Club 100 offers XMODEM programs by mail or via the Club 100 BBS.
XMODEM by Mail
You will find XMODEM programs available from the public domain program list ... referenced in the "Questions, Questions, Questions" document.
XMODEM by BBS
Come online with your Model 100/102/200 and download one of the XMODEM programs from our public domain program library. Programs on the Club 100 BBS are in ASCII (.DO). Note: You will need library access privilege on the BBS to be able to download from the Club 100 online library. Information is available online in the (4)Library area. Furthermore, if you do not have a phone/modem cable, you may order one from Club 100 (see "Second Decade" catalog.)
Once you have the .DO file in your Model 100/102/200, you will need to convert it into a tokenized BASIC file. From BASIC type LOAD"filename.DO" ... wait for the WAIT prompt to stop and the OK to return, then type SAVE"filename.BA" to make the .BA file available from your menu. Use the XMODEM program instead of TELCOM.
After connecting your Model "T" to your other computer, confirm that you are connected ... type on one computer and see the typing on the other computer's screen.
To upload a .BA or .CO file from your Model "T" to your other computer, start by telling your other computer to open a capture file of the same filename.ext using XMODEM file transfer protocol. (1) Then, simply upload your .BA file using the XMODEM commands within your new XMODEM program. Once the file is transferred, both machines will conclude, and the receiving computer will automatically close the file. The same is true for downloading. (2)
There are two XMODEM bit calculation methods, i.e., CRC and Checksum. Frankly, I forgot which method is used the most. I do know there are only two, so if one does not work, try the other.
The terms upload and download are from the participants view point. Upload means away from you, or send. Download means to you, or receive. Thus, if you are sending something to your friend, you are uploading and they are downloading.
Now the BASIC trick I mentioned above: You can load and save a .BA file through your serial port from within BASIC. The data stream will be ASCII in all cases. The command structure in Model "T" BASIC is easy.
Let's say you want to download GFCLK.BA from your DOS computer to your Model 100. The file GFCLK.BA must be in ASCII on your DOS computer for this to work ... and yes, there are ways to get around this ASCII thing but let's keep this simple. On the DOS computer call this file GFCLK.DO.
To save a tokenized file from your Model 100 to your DOS computer, simply reverse the action. Again, with your two computers connected, your DOS computer in TELCOM at 300 baud and your Model "T" in BASIC, do the following: